March 2019 Newsletter
• Physical Anthropology •
• Hands & Feet • Skeletons • New Products •

We are exhibiting at this year's American Association of Physical Anthropologists (AAPA) conference. We hope you come by to say hello!
Huntington Convention Center of Cleveland - Booth 14
300 Lakeside Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44113
Thursday, March 28 - March 30, 2019
Lucy: two ways
Australopithecus afarensis

Discovered in Hadar, Ethiopia by Donald Johanson in 1974, Lucy remains an iconic anthropological find. Characteristics of the skeleton suggest that this species walked upright (bipedal/terrestrial, note the angles of the femora) and spent time in trees (arboreal). We reconstructed the articulated skeleton using our disarticulated version, the bones of which were based on the original find. By extrapolating from several sources we created brass parts to represent missing skeletal elements. The arms and legs of the walking version are rigid and fixed; the arms and legs of the standing version are flexible. Stand and base included.
Hands in Anthropology
The hand is a complex structure that is a representation of an animal's evolutionary history. Questions arise: what does the ability (or lack of ability) to grasp, grab, touch, feel, and express with one's hand mean through the lens of Physical Anthropology? How does language, cognition and the structures of the brain relate to the evolutionary development of hands in human, hominin, and non-human primates? The study of hands may play a major role solving some of evolution's most persistent mysteries.
Feet in Anthropology
The foot is also a complex structure that is a representation of an animal's evolutionary history. Additionally, the study of a foot's structure, including the morphology of individual bones, can reveal much about the locomotion style of its owner, such as the species' habitat, whether its stance was primarily upright or horizontal, and whether it was primarily quadrupedal or bipedal, or a combination.
We offer an exceptional variety of hand and foot Bone Clones® (over 140): from humans of differing ages (including fetal), adult male and female specimens from Asia and Europe, fossil hominids (Neanderthal, Ardipithecus, Homo habilis) and an extensive collection of great and lesser apes and monkeys.

Our extremity replicas are available disarticulated, semi-disarticulated, articulated rigidly, and articulated with flexibility (premium). Individual bones are also available. Please inquire.
Universities, colleges, and schools love our skeletons for use in their specimen libraries or per student, as is the case with many purchases of our Disarticulated Half-skeletons; our disarticulated half-skeletons have also proven to be favorites among educators.

Skeletons can be ordered articulated, partially-disarticulated, and disarticulated. Most of our human skeletons come with an analysis report reviewing the age, sex, ancestry, and other noteworthy characteristics of the specimen. Accessories, such as bags and storage/carry cases are available. Stands are included with articulated human skeletons.

Our skeletons are made with utmost care to retain gross and minute osteological details of the original bone, such as muscle attachments and fossa.

We offer discounts to universities and accredited educational institutions. Please inquire.
Bone Clones® skeleton specimens range from fetal, child, adolescent, to adult, and include adults with known ancestry (asian male & female, european male and female), and pathology (female achondroplastic dwarf, male robust).
Human Skeletons
Bone Clones produces an extraordinary selection of skeletons with a high level of osteological / anatomical accuracy and detail that greatly enhance the study of both human and animal osteology. The growing selection of animal skeletons includes several Great Apes and monkeys, such as the Gorilla, Chimpanzee, Bonobo, Mandrill Baboon, Orangutan, Siamang, Weeping Capuchin, Rhesus Macaque, and Vervet.
The Silverback Lowland Gorilla Skeleton is cast from a very large male specimen. The largest primate, Gorillas spend most of their day eating to support their large mass. Males can be up to twice the weight of females. The characteristic head shape of male Gorillas is the result of structures designed to process the voluminous amount of low nutrient vegetation that comprise their diet. Compared to Chimpanzees and Bonobos, Gorillas have longer arms relative to leg size, and shorter, broader hands and feet. Original skeleton is courtesy of the Philadelphia Zoo.
Colobus Monkey Skull

These medium sized monkeys inhabit equatorial Africa. Individuals of this species have long tails and, unlike other Old World monkeys, lack cheek pouches and ischial callosities (sitting pads).
Human Sacrum Growth Set
In the adult human sacrum there are 5 vertebra that fuse to form the sacrum, and this forms the center of pelvic girdle. The sacrum is wider at the top where weight is distributed. At birth the sacrum consists of 21 separate elements, but do not develop recognized morphology until about 1 year of age. Around 2-5 years of age, the elements begin to fuse and by the age of 6, the sacrum contains five unfused segments. At puberty, at least 14 sacral epiphyses (growth plates) begin to appear and by about age 20, the sacral segments are united with epiphyseal lines remaining until the late 20's.
Human Femur Growth Set
The largest bone in the body begins to develop early on in fetal development and is the last to fuse (for females at about 14 years old and for males at about 16 years old). The shaft begins development in the 1st trimester. By birth, the distal epiphysis (growth plate at the end of the femur) is usually present. At 3-5 years of age, the distal epiphysis develops a recognizable shape. The proximal epiphysis (growth plate forming the head of the femur) forms within the 1st year of life, and by early childhood it forms a recognizable shape with distinctive characteristics. By about 12-15 years of age it reaches its distinctive shape.
Quality replicas for hands-on education™
Our primate skulls are ideal for primatology, anthropology or comparative anatomy programs, or for use in zoological settings. We offer over 50 non-human primate specimens, including several well priced sets. As with all our products, we strive for faithful reproduction of details large and small.
Australopithecus afarensis Skull "Selam"
Set of 7 Primate Skulls
Discovered (along with a partial skeleton) during the 2000, '02, '03 field seasons in Hadar Formation in Ethiopia, which spans in age of 3.31 to 3.35 million years ago.
DIK-1-1, also known as Dikika Baby or Lucy's Child, is estimated to be 3 years old and most likely female. The skull size and facial proportions resemble those of other juvenile hominins of similar age, such as Taung child, but specific morphology of the face indicate it is most likely Australopithecus afarensis.
This set of skulls consists of 3 extant primate Bone Clones® replica skulls cast from original bone, as well as 4 Bone Clones® skulls from the Fossil Hominid collection of carefully sculpted recreations. Useful for comparative study, these 7 skulls represent significant species in primate evolution. All items are available individually but have been discounted for a significant savings when purchased as a set. Set includes:

  • A gorilla - the largest of the primates.
  • A modern human of Asian ancestry.
  • A chimpanzee-the genetically closest relative to modern humans.
  • A. afarensis ( 2.9 to 3.6 MYA): An early hominid found only in Africa.
  • A. boisei (1.8 MYA): nicknamed "Nutcracker Man." A unique species in hominid evolution with a massive skull, enormous molars and cranial adaptations for powerful chewing.
  • H. erectus (300,000 to 600,000 YA): recreation by Tattersall and Sawyer of Peking Man, found near Beijing, China, at the Zhoukoudian Cave in the late 1920s.
  • H. neanderthalensis (50,000 YA): A "classic" Neanderthal, found in France, with features best representing the species.
Until next time ...
All text and images © 2019 Bone Clones, Inc.
Bone Clones, Inc. | | 9200 Eton Ave, Chatsworth, CA 91311
818-709-7991 or 800-914-0091